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Bioaerosol
Definicja:

A bioaerosol is a suspension of solid and liquid particles that contain living organisms. These organisms are tiny micoorganisms like fungi, spores, bacteria and viruses and live on the surface of dust particles or in vapour particles. Bioaerosols are released by air into the environment. 

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    Bioaerosol

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    Bioaerosol

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    Bioaerosol

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    Bioaerosol

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    Bioaerosol

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)
Definicja:

The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, biological oxygen demand) is defined as a sum-parameter for the contimination of the sewage with organic substances which can be degraded biologically within 5 days. The BOD5 shows the amount of oxygen [mg/l] which are necessary for the biological degradation of carbon and nitrogen compounds under certain conditions within 5 days.

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    Biochemischer Sauerstoffbedarf (BSB5)

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    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)

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    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)

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    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)

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    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)

Biofilter
Definicja:

A biofilter is relatively simple and cost-effective technology for cleaning exhaust air. Microorganisms degrade pollutants and odours to harmless products like CO2 and water. The requirement for a good cleaning performance is to guarantee optimum living conditions for the microorganisms.

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    Biofilter

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    Biofilter

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    Biofilter

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    Biofilter

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    Biofilter

C/N-ratio
Definicja:

The C/N-ratio is defined as the relation between carbon and nitrogen. The substrates are mixed together as long as an optimum ratio between 25:1 and 35:1 is reached. If it is outside of the optimum conditions, higher emissions, slower starting process, loss of nutrients, etc are the consequences.

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    C/N-Verhältnis

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    C/N-ratio

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    C/N-ratio

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    C/N-ratio

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    C/N-ratio

Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Definicja:

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is defined as a sum-parameter for the contamination of the sewage with organic substances. The COD shows the amount of oxygen [mg/l], which is necessary for the chemical oxidation of the organic materials in the sewage.

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    Chemischer Sauerstoffbedarf (CSB)

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    Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

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    Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

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    Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

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    Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

CLO
Definicja:

Under compliance with certain conditions, in some contries it is allowed to use the fine fraction of the stabilised waste (< 15 mm) as landfill greening as far as the amount of foreign particles does not exceed a maximum limit value. This fraction is named CLO („Compost Like Output“).

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    CLO

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    CLO

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    CLO

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    CLO

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    CLO

Composting
Definicja:

Composting is the biological process of the nutrient cycle, where bacteria and fungi (micro-organisms) degrade biologically degradable organic material under the impact of oxygen (aerobic). Beside the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) also water-soluable minerals like nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, kalium and magnesium are released, which have a fertiliser effect. A part of these substances are saved in the form of Humus.

For the composting process the following material parameters are important:

Water content 40-60 %
Material density max. 650 kg/m³
C/N ratio 30:1


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    Kompostierung

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    Composting

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    Composting

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    Composting

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    Composting

Dry matter
Definicja:

The dry matter (dM) is the part of the fresh mass that remains after the drying process. The measurement takes place at 105 °C as long as the mass has reached constant weight.

Dry matter = fresh mass - water mass [m]
Dry matter = dry mass / wet mass [%]

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    Trockensubstanz

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    Dry matter

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    Dry matter

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    Dry matter

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    Dry matter

Emission
Definicja:

Emission is called the submission of disturbing factors into the environment. These can be caused by natural or anthropological sources. There are several types of emissions:

  • Gaseous emissions (air pollutants, bioaerosols)
  • Liquid emissions (waste water, leachate)
  • Dust emissions
  • Noise emissions
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    Emission

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    Emission

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    Emission

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    Emission

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    Emission

Fresh mass
Definicja:

The fresh mass is the weighted mass of a material. It consists of the water content and the dry matter.

Fresh mass = dry matter + water content

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    Frischmasse (FM)

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    Fresh mass

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    Fresh mass

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    Fresh mass

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    Fresh mass

Garbage
Definicja:

Household waste and commercial waste similar to household waste which is collected by the litter service.

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    Restmüll

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    Garbage

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    Garbage

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    Garbage

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    Garbage

Gas formation rate (GFR21)
Definicja:

The gas formation rate (GFR21) is defined as the development of biogas in anaerobic circumstances of at least 21 days. Besides the determination of the breathability (AT4), the rate is a parameter for the stability of the waste, whereby the measurement takes longer.

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    Gasbildungsrate in 21 Tagen (GB21)

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    Gas formation rate (GFR21)

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    Gas formation rate (GFR21)

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    Gas formation rate (GFR21)

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    Gas formation rate (GFR21)

Landfill criteria
Definicja:

The output material of an MBT plant has to fulfil landfill criteria of the European Landfill Directive 1999/31/EG to be able to dispose the treated waste in a landfill. These parameters are specific for each country and can be among others:

  • Respiration activity of the material (AT4 and/or GB21)
  • Maximum calorific value
  • TOC (Total Organic Carbon)
  • DOC (Diluted Organic Carbon)
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    Deponiekriterien

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    Landfill criteria

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    Landfill criteria

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    Landfill criteria

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    Landfill criteria

Leachate
Definicja:

Leachate is the surplus water which can not be absorbed by the composting windrow. The leachate either seeps through the windrow or runs along the material slope. Depending on the plant type, leachate has different origins:

  • Rainfall (open composting plants)
  • Irrigation water
  • Condensate of negative-aerated windrows

Recirculation of the leachate into the composting process enables the composting plant to significantly reduce the amount of leachate.

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    Sickerwasser

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    Leachate

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    Leachate

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    Leachate

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    Leachate

Loss of ignition (LOI)
Definicja:

The loss of ignition (also known as organic dry matter) shows the loss of mass which results through the incineration of the organic material at 550 °C. It contains all organic compounds that can be degraded biologically through microorganisms.

Loss of ignition = 1 - (Mass after incineration / dry mass before incineration)

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    Glühverlust

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    Loss of ignition (LOI)

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    Loss of ignition (LOI)

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    Loss of ignition (LOI)

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    Loss of ignition (LOI)

MBT plant
Definicja:

An MBT plant (Mechanical and biological treatment plant) is a waste treatment plant consisting of a mechanical and a biological treatment process.

The mechanical treatment is done before / after the biological treatment and can have the following steps:

  • Conditioning of the waste for the biological treatment
  • Recycling of reusable materials
  • Sorting/Screening of the waste into different fractions


The purpose of an MBT plant is the

  • Stabilisation of waste to create a material to be disposed on a landfill according to the European Landfill directive
  • Reduction of climate relevant emissions (Greenhouse gases, leachate, ...)
  • Improved usage of the landfill volume
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    MBA

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    MBT plant

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    MBT plant

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    MBT plant

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    MBT plant

Organic dry matter
Definicja:

The organic dry matter (odM) is the part of the dry matter that contains organic compounds and thus being able to be biologically degraded by microorganisms. This is determined by the incineration of the sample at 550 °C (the weight loss (loss of ignition) is the mass of the organic dry matter).

Organic dry matter = loss of ignition / dry matter mass

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    Organische Trockensubstanz (oTS)

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    Organic dry matter

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    Organic dry matter

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    Organic dry matter

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    Organic dry matter

Pore volume
Definicja:

The pore volume is defined as the relation between the available cavity to the total volume of a fill/windrow. It can either be filled with air or water, whereby water always prevails. That is the reason why you should take care of an appropriate water content.

Pore volume = cavity / total volume

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    Porenvolumen

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    Pore volume

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    Pore volume

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    Pore volume

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    Pore volume

Pre-treatment
Definicja:

Pre-treatment is the treatment of the input material before the actual composting process. This happens in order to reach an optimum degradation performance. Examples for this is the separation of impurities, homogenizing with/without crushing of the materials or addition of nutrient or aggregate material.

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    Aufbereitung

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    Pre-treatment

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    Pre-treatment

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    Pre-treatment

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    Pre-treatment

Quality Assurance
Definicja:

Quality Assurance (QA) is the sum of all measures to guarantee a constant product quality. For this, the properties of a product / process are controlled. In case of differences, corrective measures can be carried out. The QA can be done by oneself or by an external person / institution.

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    Qualitätssicherung

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    Quality Assurance

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    Quality Assurance

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    Quality Assurance

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    Quality Assurance

Recultivation
Definicja:

Recultivation is the production of a soil layer on which plants are able to grow. A rooting soil layer is put on the underground, which is favorable for the growth of the plants. Application examples for the recultivation are the landfill-greening of completely-filled landfills and lawn along the streets.

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    Rekultivierung

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    Recultivation

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    Recultivation

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    Recultivation

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    Recultivation

Respiration rate (AT4)
Definicja:

The respiration rate (AT4) is a parameter for MBT plants (Mechanical biological treatment) determining the biological stability/activity of the waste. The limit values need to be fulfilled so that the waste (after the stabilizing process) is allowed to be disposed in a landfill. The respiration rate is measured over 4 days in a laboratory.

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    Atmungsaktivität nach 4 Tagen (AT4)

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    Respiration rate (AT4)

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    Respiration rate (AT4)

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    Respiration rate (AT4)

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    Respiration rate (AT4)

Sanitisation
Definicja:

Sanitisation means the killing of germs (pathogens, bacteria) and the inactivation of plant seeds. The composting process generates enough heat to fulfill the sanitisation requirements through a sufficient temperature-time-regime.

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    Hygienisierung

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    Sanitisation

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    Sanitisation

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    Sanitisation

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    Sanitisation

Scrubber
Definicja:

Scrubbers are used for the precipitation of solid and/or liquid substances from a exhaust gas. With nozzles the wash water is distributed inside the tower, thus the substance is removed from the exhaust gas and collected in the liquid phase.

Different types of scrubbers are used in practise depending on their purpose:

  • Acidic Scrubber: pH value of the wash water < 7
  • Neutral Scrubber: pH value of the wash water is ca. 7
  • Alkalic Scrubber: pH value of the wash water > 7
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    Wäscher

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    Scrubber

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    Scrubber

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    Scrubber

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    Scrubber

Turning
Definicja:

Turning is the intense mixing of compost materials by a so called turner. Goal of this process is to

  • get material of the edge into the hot windrow core
  • break-up the material
  • aerate the material
  • set free stored gases of the windrow 
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    Umsetzen

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    Turning

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    Turning

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    Turning

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    Turning

Water content
Definicja:

The water content is the amount of water which a fresh mass contains. The water content should always be between 40 % and 60 % [m/m] during the composting process.

Dry matter + water content = 100 %
Water content = mass of water / fresh mass * 100 [%]

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    Wassergehalt (WG)

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    Water content

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    Water content

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    Water content

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    Water content

Windrow
Definicja:

The windrow is an oblong compost heap in which biologically degradable (organic) materials are mixed together in right proportions and undergo an aerobic degradation process. There are different types of composting windrows:

  • Triangle-shaped windrows (most common)
  • Trapezoid windrows
  • Table Pile
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    Kompostmiete

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    Windrow

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    Windrow

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    Windrow

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    Windrow

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